─ not reported, AD atopic dermatitis, HS healthy skin, LS lesional skin, PV pityriasis versicolor, SD seborrhoeic dermatitis, OT otitis. Malassezia dermatitis might feature in cats that present with a phenotype of allergic skin disease, idiopathic facial dermatitis (Persian/ Himalayan), feline acne and serious internal medical disorders such as feline paraneoplastic alopecia and thymoma‐associated exfoliative dermatitis. Pulsed therapy with itraconazole (5 mg/kg orally once daily, two days on/ five days off for three weeks) has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs430 and thus should be effective as a preventative, although one report highlighted potential for development of antifungal drug resistance with pulse dosing (Section 11.5.2381). Many culture‐based studies have been carried out worldwide both in humans and in animals (especially in dogs) to better understand the ecology of Malassezia species on healthy skin and in cases with cutaneous lesions.33 Results are rarely comparable between studies because of the use of different sampling procedures, culture media and identification techniques. The standard clinical approach is identification and treatment of underlying causes, whenever possible,388, 391, 447-449 though there is surprisingly limited reported evidence to document its efficacy (Table S8). Il y a eu un développement remarquable des connaissances sur les levures Malassezia et leur rôle dans les maladies animales, particulièrement depuis le début des années 1990. As mentioned, Weidman47 isolated yeasts from the skin of a rhinoceros in 1925, but research in domestic animals largely re‐started 30 years later. El Comité de Pautas de Consenso Clínico de la Asociación Mundial de Dermatología Veterinaria (WAVD) proporcionó orientación y supervisión para este proceso. 1955: Gustafson was the first to notice a bottle shaped yeast in otitis externa of a dog; he correctly recognized them as Pityrosporum and created a new species P. canis.58 This was in error as he had misread Lodder's description and failed to consider Weidman's discovery of the yeast in rhinoceros skin, which grew without lipid enrichment. Optimally sized plates for cats and dogs (typically 18–27 mm diameter depending on site sampled) containing the preferred medium (modified Dixon's agar) are not available commercially but are readily custom‐made in mycology laboratories that are accustomed to preparing their own media. Devon rex and sphynx cats are also predisposed. Le genre Malassezia est composé qu’un groupe de levures lipophiliques qui ont évoluées en tant que commensaux de la peau et pathogènes cutanés opportunistes chez de nombreux mammifères et oiseaux. Indications d’utilisation. Amongst the various treatments utilised for Malassezia dermatitis in dogs, strong evidence (SoR A) is available only for the use of a 2% miconazole and 2% chlorhexidine shampoo, used twice weekly (two RCT with LoE 1). Abstract publication only; compared to shampoo alone or combined with KTZ, 6/12 dogs: transient anorexia [n = 2], vomiting [n = 3], vomiting and soft stool [n = 1]. La condition est causée par la prolifération de la Malassezia Pachydermatis, une levure qui est un habitant normal de la peau, des oreilles, et des zones cutanéomuqueuses. There are only anecdotal reports of preventative efficacy of itraconazole for dermatitis at a once‐weekly interval. As a result of this Malassezia allergens are now typically included in standard intradermal allergen tests and IgE serology, although, to date, there is relatively limited evidence of beneficial effects of allergen‐specific immunotherapy against M. pachydermatis in dogs.238. Le chien se gratte souvent l’oreille et secoue la tête. Terbinafine is a synthetic allylamine derivative that inhibits fungal ergosterol biosynthesis at the point of squalene epoxidation. D’ailleurs, des sécrétions brunâtres, du pus, v… In a study of 10 selected isolatess of M. pachydermatis from canine ears (supplemented Sabouraud's broth), terbinafine MIC50 increased by three two‐fold dilutions when sub‐cultured 30 times in Sabouraud's broth containing terbinafine at concentrations close to the original MIC.351 Similarly, nystatin MIC50 increased by a single two‐fold dilution when sub‐cultured in the same way and ketoconazole MIC50 increased by four two‐fold dilutions. Os autores serviram como Painel de Diretrizes (GP) e revisaram a literatura disponível antes de outubro de 2018. Rationale for itraconazole instead of ketoconazole includes the potential for intermittent dosing and a perceived tendency for itraconazole to be better‐tolerated. These would then act as antigen presenting cells able to sensitise and then activate the T lymphocyte population. An impaired barrier function, such as is seen in canine and human atopic dermatitis,177 is likely to facilitate transepidermal allergen penetration. P. pachydermatis, P. canis), a species isolated from the skin of animals, especially dogs. These publications, discussions and controversies were a prerequisite to unravelling the role of Malassezia spp. 1940–1960: are known as the ‘Dark Years’ and spanned a period of more controversy. Download Citation | Comparaison de deux posologies de kétoconazole pour le traitement de la dermatite à Malassezia chez le chien | 20 dogs with Malassezia dermatitis were included in this study. A small number of publications report activity in vitro of other agents against Malassezia spp. Although the occurrence of severe generalized alopecia, lichenification and hyperpigmentation in the West Highland white terrier breed has been reported previously as a form of genetic epidermal dysplasia,243 many veterinary clinicians believe this condition is a severe manifestation of allergic skin disease and concurrent Malassezia dermatitis. On les retrouve aussi au niveau du conduit auditif externe du chien. 1975: Dufait was the first to describe the skin disease, albeit in a local veterinary journal written in Dutch.62 Also later, several non‐English language studies were published,63-65 all describing canine Malassezia dermatitis; however, without a widespread English audience, many pruritic dogs suffered as a result of this disadvantage. Pruritus is not typically a feature.78, 115, Less common presentations reported in Devon Rex cats include generalized seborrhoea sicca, a greasy seborrhoea affecting the ventral neck and head and pruritus.115 In sphynx cats in particular, there may be some elevated Malassezia carriage (compared with normal cats) which may result in greasiness without overt inflammation or seborrhoea.85, 116, Allergic cats show more variability in their presentation and may present with concurrent bacterial pyoderma.85, 392 Dermatitis may be localised or generalised with pruritus, alopecia, erythema and greasy exudate. in 1996.56. In routine cases, skin populations of the yeast are best assessed by cytology or quantitative culture (Section 8). La dermatite à Malassezia chez le chien est une maladie de peau fréquente due à une levure : Malassezia pachydermatis (parfois appelée Pityrosporum folliculorum chez l’homme).. Certaines régions sont plus touchées comme : le conduit auditif, les plis, les babines, les espaces interdigités et la base des griffes, la face ventrale de l’abdomen…. Terbinafine was first shown to have activity in vitro against Malassezia spp. In cats data are even less numerous and only open studies have been reported. Similarly, historical reports of an idiopathic seborrhoea non‐responsive to etretinate in West Highland white terriers and basset hounds may have reflected untreated Malassezia dermatitis.390. isolates from human clinical specimens collected in 1984 at the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta (USA) 15 were identified as M. pachydermatis.463 These last isolates were mainly from skin, tissue fluids (e.g. The relatively high cost of certain innovator‐formulated drugs such as itraconazole has stimulated the compounding of bulk powder formulations by pharmacists in an attempt to reduce costs to clients. The association between Malassezia spp. One exception has been the report of a facial granuloma in a dog owner, where M. pachydermatis was identified by electron microscopy in affected tissues, the yeast was grown and identified by standard microbiological methods and the patient responded to anti‐fungal therapy.467. The adhesive properties aid removal of skin surface material especially in erythematous lesions with limited exudation. WAVD cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this article. Contact plate counts from the trunk were significantly higher in healthy Devon rex cats when compared to healthy domestic short‐haired cats and Cornish rex cats; seborrhoeic Devon rex and sphynx cats had high yeast counts that exceeded those of the other groups.80, 116 Contact plates were also used in two studies that assessed the beneficial therapeutic effects of oral itraconazole in cats with Malassezia dermatitis.86, 284.
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