[62] Columbus first sailed to the Canary Islands, which had been largely conquered by Castile. 3. In early December 1502, Columbus and his crew endured a severe storm. After a two-day standoff, the prisoners were released, and Columbus again set sail for Spain.[87]. How to make a video presentation with Prezi in 6 steps; Oct. 14, 2020. [55], Columbus waited at King Ferdinand's camp until Ferdinand and Isabella conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian Peninsula, in January 1492. 36-45 . To keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the Catholic monarchs gave him an allowance, totaling about 14,000 maravedis for the year, or about the annual salary of a sailor. [36][37][35] The sphericity of the Earth is also accounted for in the work of Ptolemy, on which medieval astronomy was largely based. [p] On 30 May 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World. For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras (Ezra): see 2 Esdras 6:42, which he took to mean that the Earth is made of six parts of land to one of water. [35] Returning on 15 March 1493, Columbus was given a warm welcome by the monarchs. Quel itinéraire est choisi ? [225] The natives had no acquired immunity to these new diseases and suffered high fatalities. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. [229] The diseases that devastated the Native Americans came in multiple waves at different times, sometimes as much as centuries apart, which would mean that survivors of one disease may have been killed by others, preventing the population from recovering. [35] To return to Spain against this prevailing wind would have required several months of an arduous sailing technique, called beating, during which food and drinkable water would probably have been exhausted. He would be entitled to 10 percent of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity. s-3-x-de-e-mb / Santa Maria Caraque (grand navire) La Pinta Caravelles (petits voiliers) La Niña —3000 Lors du quatrième voyage, que Colomb entreprit avec son jeune fils de douze ans, se produira un épisode bien plus dramatique encore. The painting was commissioned for a chapel in Seville's Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) and remains there, as the earliest known painting about the voyages of Columbus. A total of two billion stamps were issued for all the Columbian denominations, and 72 percent of these were the two-cent stamps, "Landing of Columbus", which paid the first-class rate for domestic mail at the time. [216] Disease, warfare and harsh enslavement contributed to the depopulation. But while praying, they were imprisoned by the governor of the island, ostensibly on suspicion of being pirates. Le navigateur effectuera quatre voyages vers l’Amérique, de 1492 à 1493, de 1493 à 1496, de 1498 à 1500 et de 1502 à 1504. Colomb atteint les Antilles le 12 octobre 1492. [84] The Ciguayos refused to trade the amount of bows and arrows that Columbus desired; in the ensuing clash one Ciguayo was stabbed in the buttocks and another wounded with an arrow in his chest. Relation du premier voyage entrepris par Christophe Colomb pour la découverte du Nouveau-Monde en 1492. [138] Bobadilla reported to Spain that Columbus regularly used torture and mutilation to govern Hispaniola. Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time, written around AD 723. "Columbus's claim to fame isn't that he got there first," explains Martin Dugard, "it's that he stayed. … In subsequent years, he was plagued with what was thought to be influenza and other fevers, bleeding from the eyes, temporary blindness and prolonged attacks of gout. On 15 June, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). [212][217][218][219] Within indigenous circles, Columbus is often viewed as a key agent of genocide. [8] Columbus's refusal to accept that the lands he had visited and claimed for Spain were not part of Asia might explain, in part, why the American continent was named after the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci and not after Columbus.[58][e]. [167] American nativists preferred Leif Erikson. Pratiques Année 1984 41 pp. Numerous cities, towns, counties, streets, and plazas (called Plaza Colón or Plaza de Colón throughout Latin America and Spain) have been named after him. Read Resume de l'Histoire Des Etablissemens Europeens Dans Les Indes Occidentales, Depuis Le Premier Voyage de Christophe Colomb Jusqu'a Nos Jours (Classic Reprint) … [143], After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on 30 July. Réplique des trois caravelles du premier voyage de C.Colomb: la Pinta, la Niña et la Santa Maria. Relisant Aristote, Marco Polo et Pierre d’Ailly, Colomb multiplie les faux calculs et prévoit d’atteindre le Japon au terme d’un voyage de 750 lieues (4 440 km), soit une distance quatre fois inférieure à la réalité… Il effectue quatre voyages, restant jusqu’au bout persuadé d’avoir abordé l’Asie. [141] They were returned to Spain, and lingered in jail for six weeks before King Ferdinand ordered their release. [s] These remains were considered legitimate by physician and U.S. Assistant Secretary of State John Eugene Osborne, who suggested in 1913 that they travel through the Panama Canal as a part of its opening ceremony. [47][48], It is unclear whether Columbus learned about the winds from his own sailing experience or if he had heard about them from others. [118] Since there was no abundance of gold on the island, the natives had no chance of meeting Columbus' quota and thousands are reported to have committed suicide. [50], Columbus sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who had united several kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying and were ruling together. He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain. Columbus found the fort in ruins, destroyed by the Taínos. There is also evidence that they had poor diets and were overworked. By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane season, skirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cyclone, both of which, by chance, he avoided. Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong ...[27], Throughout his life, Columbus also showed a keen interest in the Bible and in Biblical prophecies, often quoting biblical texts in his letters and logs. The strongest 500 were sent to Spain to be sold as slaves, with 40% of these dying en route.[78][110]. Towards the end of his life, he produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology and of apocalypticism. L’expédition accostera le 12 octobre 1492 sur une île que Colomb baptisera San Salvador (actuelles Bahamas). Il vante la richesse de ces nouvelles terres et affirme que la conversion des Indiens au catholicisme est possible. The passengers included priests, farmers, and soldiers, who would be the new colonists. Following Columbus's persistent lobbying to multiple kingdoms, Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand II agreed to sponsor a journey west. in. Skip to main content. The troops went wild, stealing, killing, raping, and torturing natives, trying to force them to divulge the whereabouts of the imagined treasure-houses of gold. As a colonial governor, Columbus was accused by his contemporaries of significant brutality and was soon removed from the post. "[163] The box contained bones of an arm and a leg, as well as a bullet. Henceforth Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres was to be the new governor of the West Indies.[137]. Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. On 22 November, Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit the fort of La Navidad. [28] In an account of his fourth voyage, Columbus wrote that "Jerusalem and Mount Sion must be rebuilt by Christian hands". After being becalmed for several days in the doldrums of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus's fleet regained its wind and, low on water, turned north in the direction of Dominica. [123] The Arawaks attempted to fight back against Columbus's men but lacked their armor, guns, swords, and horses. [q], According to the report, Columbus once punished a man found guilty of stealing corn by having his ears and nose cut off and then selling him into slavery. One of the first skirmishes between Native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings occurred on 14 November, when at Saint Croix, Columbus's men pursued the canoe of some Island Caribs and their prisoners, which met them with arrows. [33][34] Columbus's plans were complicated by the opening of the southeast passage to Asia around Africa by Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, when he reached the Cape of Good Hope (modern-day South Africa). [236][237], At the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed; most did not match contemporary descriptions. Beatriz, unmarried at the time, gave birth to Columbus's natural son Fernando Columbus in July 1488, named for the monarch of Aragon. Référence bibliographique; Jedynak Sylvie. A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. Lors de son premier voyage, Christophe Colomb part avec 2 caravelles : la Pinta et la Nina. In Columbus's time, the techniques of celestial navigation, which use the position of the sun and the stars in the sky, together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere, had long been in use by astronomers and were beginning to be implemented by mariners. Christophe Colomb. [101] Among the ruins were the corpses of 11 of the 39 Spaniards who had stayed behind as the first colonists in the New World. The Brooklyn Museum catalogue notes that the most likely source for Leutze's trio of Columbus paintings is. Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties.[26]. [201] The punishment for an indigenous person failing to fill their hawk's bell of gold dust every three months was cutting off the hands of those without tokens, letting them bleed to death. As in the first voyage, the fleet stopped at the Canary Islands, from which it departed on 13 October, following a more southerly course than on the previous expedition. 0/10. À partir du texte d’Oviedo : (Annexe 2) Quels étaient les noms des navires ? Le premier voyage de Christophe Colomb s'effectua sur la caraque Santa Maria. Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. En poursuivant votre navigation sans modifier vos paramètres, vous acceptez l'utilisation des cookies permettant le bon fonctionnement du service. [192], Historians have traditionally argued that Columbus remained convinced until his death that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia as he originally intended,[193][169] but writer Kirkpatrick Sale argues that a document in the Book of Privileges indicates Columbus knew he found a new continent. Préparez une présentation orale en groupe et racontez les évènements importants de l’année 1492. Under the Mongol Empire's hegemony over Asia (the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol peace), Europeans had long enjoyed a safe land passage, the Silk Road, to the Indies (then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia) and China, which were sources of valuable goods such as spices and silk.
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